China's Vice Foreign Minister Xie Feng said relations had reached a "stalemate" because the US saw China as an "imagined enemy".
He is in talks with Deputy Secretary of State Wendy Sherman, the most senior US official to visit China in months.
Mr Biden has taken a hard-line approach towards China, especially on issues like human rights and sanctions.
Mr Xie had said that the US wanted to "blame China for its own structural problems", according to a statement by China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
"It is as if when China's development is contained... America would become great again."
The US Department of State had earlier said it was hoping to hold "candid exchanges" to "advance US interests and... responsibly manage the relationship".
The two-day visit, which ends on Monday, sees Ms Sherman spend two days in the north-eastern port city of Tianjin.
The US-China visit is widely being viewed as a preparatory step for an eventual meeting with Mr Biden and his Chinese counterpart President Xi Jinping.
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